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A Opinião da CPI-SP sobre:
 

O Direito Internacional é mais um instrumento para a garantia dos direitos das comunidades quilombolas.

Desde 1969, vigora no Brasil a Convenção Internacional sobre a Eliminação de Todas as Formas de Discriminação Racial, resolução da Assembléia das Nações Unidas (ONU) por meio da qual os Estados Membros condenam a discriminação racial e comprometem-se a adotar uma política destinada a eliminar a discriminação racial em todas as suas formas e a encorajar a promoção de entendimento entre todas as raças.

Já em 2003, passou a vigorar no Brasil a Convenção 169 da Organização Internacional do Trabalho (OIT) sobre Povos Indígenas e Tribais. Dessa forma, ela tem força de lei no Brasil.

A Convenção 169 assegura, por exemplo, que nenhum Estado tem o direito de negar a identidade de um povo indígena ou tribal que se reconheça como tal. Garante também às comunidades quilombolas o direito à propriedade de suas terras e estabelece a necessidade de consulta sobre todas as medidas suscetíveis de afetá-las.

A Convenção pode ser estratégica para a defesa dos direitos das comunidades quilombolas, uma vez que o seu não-cumprimento pode ser denunciado junto a OIT. Trata-se assim de mais um instrumento de pressão e garantia de direitos.

O Supremo Tribunal Federal firmou a orientação de que as normas oriundas de tratados internacionais, embora não possuam força constitucional, estão acima da legislação interna. Ou seja, reconheceu-se aquilo que os juristas chamam de “status normativo supralegal dos tratados de direitos humanos subscritos pelo Brasil”. Em outras palavras, o Supremo entendeu que essas normas situam-se abaixo da Constituição, porém acima de todas as outras leis brasileiras. A partir desse entendimento, pode-se concluir que, hierarquicamente, a Convenção 169 OIT situa-se acima das leis brasileiras.

Até junho de 2013, a Convenção tinha sido ratificada por 22 países: Argentina, Bolívia, Brasil, Colômbia, Costa Rica, Chile, Dominica, Equador, Espanha, Fiji, Guatemala, Honduras, México, Nepal, Nicaragua, Paraguai, Peru, Venezuela, Países Baixos, Noruega, Dinamarca e  República da África Central. 

Conheça os textos:

 Saiba mais sobre o Direito à Consulta Prévia assegurado pela Convenção 169

 

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