Legislação Internacional

A existência de comunidades de afros-descendentes que se identificam como grupos étnicos e reivindicam seus direitos é registrada não apenas no Brasil, mas também em outros países da América Latina como a Colômbia, Equador, Suriname, Honduras, Belize e Nicarágua.

Em alguns desses países os direitos das comunidades afro-descendentes às suas terras foram reconhecidos na legislação. Procurando tornar um pouco mais conhecidas estas experiências, a CPI-SP disponibiliza ao público as legislações sobre a matéria da Colômbia, Equador, Honduras e Nicarágua.

Nicarágua
A Constituição de 1987 reconhece as “comunidades da costa atlântica”, seu direito à propriedade de suas terras comunais e à manutenção de suas identidades culturais. Já em janeiro de 2003, foi aprovada a Lei 445 de 2002, que estabelece o procedimento para a titulação das terras comunais.

Colômbia
Na Colômbia, o reconhecimento constitucional do direito à terra dos afro-colombianos na costa do Pacífico ocorreu em 1991, através do Artigo Transitório 55 da Constituição Política e posteriormente pela Lei 70 de 1993 e pela Lei 397 de 1997.

Equador
A Constituição de 1998 já reconhecia aos afro-equatorianos direitos coletivos às terras ancestrais. A nova constituição aprovada em setembro de 2008, reconhece o Equador como uma nação pluriétnica e multicultural e reafirma os direitos coletivos das comunidades afro-equatorianas às suas terras.

O Equador conta também com a Lei dos Direitos Coletivos dos Povos Negros ou Afro Equatorianos promulgada em maio de 2006. Esta lei reconhece os direitos dos povos negros ou afro-equatorianos sobre as terras ancestrais, as práticas tradicionais de saúde, produção e a propriedade coletiva e intelectual.

Honduras
Em 2004 foi aprovada a Ley de Propiedad que dedica um capítulo ao processo de regularização da propriedade para povos indígenas e afro hondurenhos.

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